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„Barwny świat minerałów” (Colourful World of Minerals) – temporary exhibition at Museum of the Earth, Polish Academy of Sciences
16 January 2017 (Monday) - 20 October 2019, 09:00 am - 4:00 pm (Sun: 10 am – 4 pm)
Muzeum Ziemi Polskiej Akademii Nauk, Aleja Na Skarpie 20/26, 27 (map)
PLN 3 - 5, children under 7 free admission,cntnt01,detail,0&cntnt01articleid=287&cntnt01origid=15&cntnt01detailtemplate=wystawy&cntnt01lang=pl_PL&cntnt01returnid=52

Museum of the Earth of Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw invites to the new temporary exhibition titled „Barwny świat minerałów” (Colourful World of Minerals), which presents multi-colour specimens from various places in the world.
The goal of the exhibition is to explain reasons causing the emergence of colours seen in particular stone, such as chemical composition, presence of inclusions or internal construction. Specimens were arranged by colours and additionally they were divided into idiochromatic, allochromatic and pseudochromatic minerals.

The colour of idiochromatic minerals come from the ion, which is a basic component of a mineral, e.g. green colour of malachite is caused by copper ions (Cu2+).

The colour of allochromatic minerals is the result of presence of impurities in their crystal structure. The most frequent admixtures are tiny mineral inclusions, organic compounds or elemental ions, mostly of transition metals, e.g. chrome, iron or nickel. The example of allochromatic mineral is quartz, whose various colours are determined depending on impurities. The colour of minerals can be also the result of a defect in crystalline structure, caused by atom losing, due to for example radioactive radiation (morion, smoky quartz).

The colour of pseudochromatic minerals is strictly related with their internal construction.

Source: Museum of the Earth, Polish Academy of Sciences